September 2011 Archives

I got an order from McMaster Carr that included some more silicone adel clamps along with some tefzel zip-ties.  I installed a few to secure all of the wires near the right firewall pass-through.



This nicely tidied up the EGT, CHT, and Lightspeed Ignition wires running across the upper engine mount tube.



I also replaced a bunch of the temporary nylon zip-ties with the tefzel.  Regular nylon zip-ties are only good up to about 185º F.  Black, UV stabilized zip-ties are better at up to 221º F, but tefzel is good up to 300º F.  There are even higher rated zip-ties such as PEEK which is good to 500º F, but they're over $3 per zip-tie!  All of the wire insulation in the plane is also tefzel insulated, so if it's hot enough that these zip-ties melt, I'll have other problems.



I also finished up the Dynon GPS mounting bracket.  I put a gentle radius in the lower flange to follow the curve of the engine mount and drilled a few lightening holes.  I then primed and painted it gloss white.



With the mounting bracket painted, I installed it on the engine mount.



The EGT and CHT wires from cylinders 1 and 3 run under the bracket and pick up the GPS wires.



There is still plenty of access to the back of the engine for oil changes and maintenance.  I like this approach so much better than the shelf that many builders go with.



I then finished up securing the wires along the top left engine mount tube.  This bundle picks up the oil temperature sensor, manifold pressure sensor, oil pressure sensor and fuel pressure sensor wires along the way.



I've been working on my panel layout on and off for many months.  I'm happy with it now, so I started transferring it to the panel this afternoon.  You can't see much here, but my computer model was perfect.  Every thing fits exactly as it should with the clearances I determined in the computer.



Here's a rendering of the panel from the modeling software.  The only thing not pictured here is the hobbs meter.



Resumed Work on Baffles

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With the cowling fit, I resumed work on the baffles.  After a little trimming where the baffles fit around the rocker arm covers, I got everything mounted to the engine except for the part behind the spinner.



I had previously cut off the flange from the aft baffle support since it pushed the aft baffle walls too far back.  I fabricated I replacement from some 1/16" angle stock and riveted it to the baffle support.



To ensure the aft wall is in the right spot, I clamped a straightedge across it.  I then clamped the bracket to the wall and drilled the holes.



With the aft baffle wall bolted to the support, the back wall becomes very rigid.



I made the preliminary angled cuts on the ramps and made the necessary bends in the forward side baffles.



With a little trimming back of the side baffles, I got the cowl to fit down behind the spinner.  You can see that it's still nearly 1" too high, so I'm going to have to cut off quite a bit of material to get the cowl to drop all the way down and then further to have the necessary clearance between the cowl and the baffles.  The engine can move around quite a bit due to the flex of the engine mounts, and you don't want the baffles to contact the cowl.



The standard way to trim the baffles is to line the top with paper clips and then put the cowl on top.  The cowl will push some paper clips down more than others. You can then measure down some amount from the top of each paper clip to create a cut line that perfectly follows the curvature of the inside of the cowl.



Trimming Baffles

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No pictures tonight, but I went through a few iterations trimming the baffles.  The cowl is quite a bit lower, but still not all the way down.  I probably have at least 1/2" to go if not more.

I also started trimming the ramps.  I have no idea why they give you so much extra material; you have to cut quite a bit of it off before you can even start bringing the lower cowl up into place.
I trimmed the forward ends of the ramps to within 1/2" of the final dimension and them marked them for the crossing bends.  These bends allow the ramps to follow the slope of the cowl inlet.  The ramp on the left side is pretty deep since the air filter will be installed here.



The ramp on the right side is quite a bit shorter since the #1 cylinder is farther forward.



From the back side, you can see that the ramp follows the slope of the cowl inlet.  The ramp will get trimmed to be exactly flush with the inlet and a piece of baffle seal material will bridge the gap to prevent air from leaking.



I also trimmed off 1/2" from the top of the Experimental Air throttle bracket so that I can have a little more knee room.



I'm going to have this TIG welded to the bottom of the instrument panel, flush with the front of the panel.  I'll grind the weld flat so that this will be a seamless transition once painted.



I thought I finished all of the tailcone wiring a couple of weeks ago, but I had forgotten about the OAT probe and ELT antenna cable.  I drilled a new hole in the vertical rib for the antenna cable to avoid too tight of a bend radius.



On the right side of the fuselage, the cable follows the tubing run and then jumps over to the tailcone wire bundle and follows it into the conduit.



I also installed a couple of adel clamps under the seat.  This one supports the wires and tubing as they come out of the front end of the right conduit.



I installed another one on the other side of the same rib to keep the tubing from interfering with the aileron pushrods.



I also installed a couple of zip-tie bases in the aft flap cover to support the flap motor and position sensor wires.  There are not installed permanently right now, but I wanted to anchor them so that I could determine the final wire length.



Finally, I recreated my upper left switch layout with some scrap aluminum to make sure I was happy with the spacing.  I spent a few minutes playing with it and I think it's perfect.  The spacing I settled on was 1 1/4" horizontally and 1 9/16" vertically.



Received Avionics Stack

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I picked up my avionics stack from Aerial Avionics today.  They're a local company, but they were willing to match a price quote from I got from Stark Avionics.  I got a PS Engineering PMA 8000BT audio panel and a Garmin GTN 635 GPS/COM.



They built the wiring harness as well.  I went through the whole thing so that I could fully understand all of the interconnects.  Other than installing an unnecessary marker beacon antenna cable (which I removed), everything looks perfect.  Despite what looks like a rats nest, these are nicely organized and grouped together according to where they need to be routed in the airplane.  The only mistake I made was forgetting to request that they use red wires for power and black for ground like I've done with all of the other avionics in the plane.



After carefully aligning the trays, I drilled some 1/16" angle to them so that they can be mounted to the instrument panel.



The 1/16" angles are set back by the thickness of the instrument panel.  Using a piece of scrap here the same thickness, you can see that the faceplates of the radio will be flush with the front of the panel once installed.  Next up will be to cut the hole in the panel and subpanel for the avionics stack.



Started Cutting Panel

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I wanted to get started cutting the panel tonight.  First up though, I needed to fill two of the holes that are normally used to attach the panel to the ribs.  Since I'm moving the ribs inboard, these will no longer be used.  The top holes on each side (and the one in the middle that is normally used for the canopy ejection handle) all fall within avionics cutouts, but the bottom holes on each side will be visible beneath the SkyView screens.  I countersunk the holes and installed AN426AD5-4 rivets in them.  When I prep the panel for paint, I'll sand/fill this so that it will be invisible.



I then cut out the hole for the avionics stack.  The hole is really tight vertically now (and just right horizontally).  I'll extend the bottom edge of the hole down 1/16" or so to make a little more room.



Along the side, you can see that the avionics are completely flush with the panel.  Once I move the stack down a tiny bit, I'll line up and cut the holes for the SkyView panels.



Cut Holes for SkyView Screens

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I extended the hole for the radio stack downward by 3/32" and then cut the holes for the SkyView screens so that the top edges of the screens are aligned with the top of the audio panel.  The holes need a little more filing since the screens are a pretty tight fit right now, but they're close.  Once I'm happy with the fit, I can drill the mounting holes which will simultaneously lock in the position of the SkyView screens and radio stack mounting rails.  Everything else will be mounted relative to these items.



Mounted SkyView Screens

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After enlarging the SkyView screen holes slightly, I clamped a straightedge along the top of the radio stack and made sure it was aligned with the bottom edge of the panel, then pushed the SkyView screens up against the straightedge and moved them as far inboard as they could go.  I used a couple of wood blocks to hold the SkyView screens in position while I drilled a couple of the mounting holes to lock in the final position.  You can see I used some extra tape and a paper towel to keep any metal shavings out of the avionics.



I fit the panel in the plane to determine where the ribs need to be mounted.



I'm going to use some 1/16" angle to attach these ribs to the subpanel.  Some additional 1/16" angle on the other side of the subpanel (mounted horizontally) will be used to box in the hole in the subpanel to strengthen it.



A few minutes with various nibblers and snips and I have this hole in the subpanel.  The sides and bottom edge are aligned with the sides and bottom edge of the radio stack hole in the panel.  The top edge is 5/16" lower than the top edge of the hole in the panel since the audio panel tapers down in the middle and is pretty short.  Only the wiring harness will need to go through this hole.



I installed #6 nutplates in the outer SkyView mounting holes.  You can also see in this picture that I filed a radius into each corner of the screen cutout to avoid a stress riser.



For the radio stack, the nutplates are installed in the mounting rails.



I test fit the panel in the plane.  The hole in the subpanel is a little right, but it's in exactly the right spot.



You can see how tight the sides are, but the opening on the top will be perfect for the wiring harness to slip through.



The clearance on the front side of the subpanel is great.  Plenty of room for the connectors to stick out and for the wiring harness.



With the screens in place, I started hooking up the serial ports to the interconnect bus I made.  The top connector is for the left SkyView screen.  The next one down is for the right SkyView screen.  The third is for the other accessories in the aircraft (SkyView GPS, transponder and ELT).  The fourth will be for the GTN 635 and the bottom one will be for the audio panel.  I haven't hooked up the SkyView audio outputs or dimming input/output since the SkyView install manual says not to until they're supported in software.  When this is eventually supported, all I will have to do is plug the appropriate wires into the appropriate holes to hook them up.



I also finished fabricating the SkyView network cables.  Here is the connection between the EMS and the ARINC-429 box with a tee over to the left SkyView screen.  If you look closely, you'll notice that the connector on the ARINC box (on the right) has thumb screws, while the one on the EMS has small screws that need a screwdriver.  I've swapped most of the thumb screws for small screws, but left a few where access is restricted.



I bypassed the VP-X temporarily and fired up the SkyView screens.  Initially, the left screen was running 2.6 (I think) and the right screen was running 3.1.1, so not everything was working properly.



The left screen was showing proper attitude, but no synthetic vision.



The right screen was showing a position fail indication, but that was expected since the serial ports haven't been hooked up on the right screen yet.  The engine monitor seems to be working properly.  The manifold pressure is showing 29.7 inches of mercury.  The oil temp, #1 & #3 EGT/CHT temps and battery voltage are also indicating correctly



After a software update and reboot, the left screen has a valid GPS fix which caused the PFD to start showing synthetic vision.



The right screen still has the position fail indicator though.  Time to hook up the serial ports.



You can see that all of the connections on the top two connectors are identical.  The SkyView installation manual says that all of these connections should be shorted together between the two screens.  By hooking them up to the same pins on separate connectors, this happens automatically.  For example, the rightmost pins on the top and bottom row of each connector are for the #1 serial TX & RX lines.  Since both displays are connected to these pins on different connectors, their TX & RX lines are shorted together.  On the third connector down, you can see the transponder serial lines are connected to these same pins.  This allows both displays to send and receive data to/from the transponder.



After hooking up all of the serial lines from the right screen, both displays now have position data.



I stopped by the avionics shop this morning and had them swap a couple of audio inputs in the harness before I started wiring it into the airplane.  After work, I installed the connectors in the back of the trays and ran all of the ground lines.  I temporarily hooked up the power lines to the battery buss and installed some fuses to fire them up.  The map page showed No GPS Position, but that wasn't surprising since I hadn't connected the GPS antenna.



I installed a BNC connector on the COM antenna cable and a TNC connector on the GPS antenna.



I also plugged in the SD card and updated all of the databases.  They're all current (at least for a few more days).



Even in my garage, the GTN had no problem acquiring 6-7 satellites within just a few minutes.  Subsequent restarts allowed the GTN to locate itself much faster since it already had an idea where it was.  The red X over the COM frequencies is because I didn't plug in the fuse for the COM power line.



I had to fire up the SkyView screens to get an idea what the whole panel will look like.  The SkyView and GTN aren't talking to each other yet, but there are only a handful of wires to hook up to make that happen (ARINC and serial).  The only other GTN wires that need to be hooked up are the serial outputs to the transponder and ELT as well as the dimming wires.



Connected SkyView and GTN 635

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I connected all of the unswitched audio inputs from the audio panel to the interconnect bus along with the GTN serial output lines to the ELT and transponder.  I also connected the ARINC-429 TX/RX lines from the GTN to the SkyView ARINC converter box (along with the #1 GTN serial line).  The only harness wires left to connect are the dimming wires and headset jacks.



I spent a little time configuring the ARINC and serial connections on both the GTN and SkyView.  Now, with a simple flight plan entered into the GTN from KLVK on the right to KSNS on the lower left...



The HSI on the SkyView correctly shows that the course is behind me and that I need to turn left to head toward the destination.  Using the graphical flight plan editor on the GTN, I can drag the course line to a new location and the HSI on the SkyView updates immediately.



Received Isolation Diodes

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Six of my devices will be connected to an essential bus in addition to the VP-X.  This provides an alternate power path for the most critical flight instruments and eliminates several single points of failure in the electrical system:

    • Master switch
    • VP-X
    • Master contactor
    • Various wiring downstream of the master contactor
The essential bus pulls power directly from the battery bus through a high current switch and into another fuse box.  Since there are two power paths for each device, I need to use a diode in each supply line to prevent back feeding power through either the VP-X or the essential bus fuse box.  A common cathode schottky barrier diode pair in a TO-247 case would be perfect from a power standpoint, but there are two problems with those devices.  The first is that the case is electrically connected to the cathode, so it must be insulated from the heatsink with a mica washer.  The second problem is that the TO-247 leads need to be installed in a circuit board and the connections must be soldered.  Instead, I chose these schottky barrier diode pairs in an ISOTOP package.  These will be perfect for the job.  The case is electrically isolated from the diodes, so I can mount these directly to the subpanel to ack as a heatsink.  They're also rated at 40A continuous (per diode), so I won't be anywhere near the thermal capacity of the diodes.  The only downside to these devices is that the cathodes must be connected externally, but that's a minor issue.

The six devices that will be connected to the essential bus are:

  • Left SkyView Screen
  • Audio Panel
  • GTN Main Power
  • GTN COM Power
  • SkyView Autopilot Servos
  • TruTrak Gemini

Here are the diode packs I'm using.  I found them at mouser.com for about $25 each (I need 6).


I also installed a WDG3 adel clamp below the ARINC-429 converted box to support the wires and keep them from rubbing the subpanel.



I've been pretty sick the past couple of days, but after sleeping 12+ hours a day, I was feeling quite a bit better by tonight.  I came out to the garage with the intention of finishing cutting all of the holes in the instrument panel.  I needed to fabricate the annunciator light bar first so that I knew what size hole to make.  I cut a scrap piece of 0.063" and drilled a series of holes in it.  I left little ears on each end so that I could attach nutplates.  This whole piece will be installed from the back side of the panel so that the panel can be removed if necessary.  I printed up some labels on regular printer paper and cut them out to fit inside the lights.



I picked up an instrument punch from ATS just to cut this one hole ($120 including the hole drilling template).  That's a lot for just one hole, but this edge will be visible since the Gemini installs from behind.  Hopefully I'll get more use out of it down the road.



I spent a little while cutting the hole for the engine start button.  I'm mounting it just above and to the right of the mixture control so that it's easy to reach while starting.  It will be disabled by the VP-X after the engine is running, so it's no big deal that it's within reach of the passenger.  I still need to figure out how to anchor this button in the panel since it was designed to clip into a Honda S2000.



I also drilled all of the holes below the left SkyView screen.  The smaller ones are for a couple of dimmers.



I also drilled all of the holes in the upper left for the switches there.



This is the slot for the annunciator lights.  The small holes on either side are for some #6 screws that will attach the annunciator light bracket.  The larger holes are for a push-to-test button and a dimmer.



To the right of the right SkyView screen are holes for two breakers, the hobbs meter and ELT remote.



I soldered wires on all of the annunciator lights and push-to-test button and bundled everything up.  I had to rotate the dimmer to clear the radio stack.



I'll replace the red button cap with a black one, but other than that, this is done.



By mounting the lights from the back, all of this can come out as a unit when the panel is removed for painting.



I figured out how to secure the start engine button.  I riveted a 1/16" bracket to the instrument panel just to the left of the hole on the back side.  The leg that sticks out is bent towards the hole slightly and has a beveled edge.



When the button is installed, the bracket catches a nub on the side of the button.



You can see that the button is tight against the panel when hooked behind the bracket.



I fabricated a small removable clip for the other side that will hold the clip back when held in place.  You can see that it also has a beveled edge to fit behind the spring on the right side of the button.  I was planning on keeping all of this together with a worm clamp, but a zip-tie does a great job.  I might just leave it like this.



All of the switches and breakers installed in the panel have an anti-rotation washer.  This has a tab on the inner edge that fits in a keyway on the switch and a tab on the outer edge that fits in a hole in the panel that keeps the switch from rotating.



Most builders fabricate a bracket that sits behind the panel with a hole for the anti-rotation washer, but the panel is thick enough that you can just drill part way through it on the back side.



I installed the breakers, hobbs meter and ELT remote.  I don't have the correct screws for the hobbs meter and ELT remote, so I just installed them with some scrap hardware for now.



I also installed all of the switches below the left SkyView screen.  The hole in the middle is for a two-pole progressive transfer switch (2-10) like the three on the left.  It's on order and should be here soon.  The switch on the right is a 2-7 for the flaps.  It is a momentary up and down switch that returns to the center when released.



Here are all of the switches in the upper left of the panel.  The lower left switch is for the essential bus.  The one above that that is brass colored is the alternate static switch.  The rest of them are 1-3 switches for master, ignitions, alternator and avionics.



I installed the instrument panel in the airplane this afternoon.  This was more of an ordeal than I thought because I intentionally left the angles long that attach the panel to the radio stack.  I had to remove them and cut them back so that they wouldn't interfere with the annunciator lights and switches at the bottom of the panel.



First up is to wire the master contactor.  I used some 20AWG black wire (since this will go to ground potential when the master switch is closed) and ran this back to the panel.  I ran this through the right firewall penetration since that's where I'm running all of my non-sensor wires, and this will carry a non-trivial amount of power.



This goes to the master switch and the other wire here goes back to the firewall ground block.  Most of the other switches on the panel will be grounded locally since they're just sense wires for the VP-X, but like I said, this will carry a non-trivial amount of power so it goes back to the firewall.



With the battery hooked back up, throwing the master switch makes a nice satisfying clunk.  I confirmed voltage at the VP-X was correct and shut everything back off.  My goal is to get the VP-X providing power to all of the avionics within the next week.



I had been looking for a place to mount the isolation diodes for those items on the essential bus, but hadn't found a place I liked.  I wanted to mount them to the subpanel or one of the subpanel ribs for head dissipation reasons, but there's not a lot of free space left.  They need to be mounted with screws that penetrate the mounting surface, so the other side of where they mount has to be free.  There was plenty of room on the back side of the right subpanel (behind the right SkyView backup battery, but only if I spaced them away from the subpanel a bit.  I fabricated this little mounting block out of some 0.063" sheet and some z-channel.  This has a lot more thermal mass than the subpanel anyway, so it will help keep the diodes cool.  I mounted them all with some thermal paste to help heat transfer into the aluminum.



I installed nutplates on the back side in case I ever need to remove one of the diodes.



Nutplates are also installed in the z-channels so that this can be screwed in from the front.  Everything that installs onto the subpanel needs to be removable so that I can pull it out when I paint the interior.



I installed the essential bus fuse box just above the battery bus fuse box.  Each of the wires from the essential bus will run over to the isolation diode bank, so this is a pretty good location since it keeps the wiring runs short.



I also fabricated this little ground block that is installed under the avionics interconnect bus on the left side of the subpanel.  I soldered two 22AWG wires to all of the pins on the back side of this connector and then grounded it using one of the mounting screws.  All of the VP-X switches just sense ground (there is effectively no current), so there is no point in running individual ground wires all the way back to the firewall grounding block.



I ran ground wires to all of the switches that will be connected to the VP-X.  Now all I need to do is run wires from the other connectors on the switches directly to the VP-X and all of the switches should work.



Avionics Power Wiring

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I rearranged a few pins on the VP-X based on some feedback I got from Vertical Power, then started wiring power to the essential avionics up through the isolation diodes.  The cathodes are the right pair of screws in each package, so they get connected together with a short loop of wire along with the wire to the device.  The left pair of screws in each package are the anodes and are for receiving power from the VP-X (upper left screw in each package) and the essential bus (lower left screw in each package).  I ran out of #8 ring terminals, or I could have finished this up tonight.



I wired up four of the six devices on the essential bus.  The ordering in the diode pack is the same as the ordering in the essential bus (e.g. upper left in both is the GTN main power, etc.)



Since I was wiring the essential bus, I went ahead and hooked up the essential bus switch in the panel with some 12AWG wire.



The essential bus switch is a locking switch that has to be pulled out to turn on or off.



I started running through the VP-X install checklist.  I verified all device power lines and VP-X ground lines.  I also confirmed all switches ground properly.  Afterward, I removed the VP-X Pro blank box and installed the actual VP-X Pro box.



After hooking up all of the connectors, I threw the master switch and verified the VP-X powers up.  These are the lights on the ethernet jacks.



Configured VP-X and SkyView

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With the VP-X installed and running, I connected a crappy old PC laptop (I stopped using Windows many many years ago).  I ran the VP-X Configurator and configured all of the devices and verified all of the switches are sensed properly.



After upgrading the SkyView screens to 3.2 and entering the VP-X license code, I configured the serial port to talk to the VP-X.  It wasn't immediately obvious how to get the VP-X screen to appear, but a quick glance at the SkyView installation manual revealed the method.



When you're in the engine page, a new VP-X button appears that brings up the VP-X page.  At the top, you can see an electrical system diagram that shows the power flowing from the main alternator and the battery into the VP-X.  This is a little misleading though since it doesn't include power that bypasses the VP-X such as the power to keep the master contactor closed and the power to run the electronic ignition.  I *think* this will cause this display to always show some power flowing into the battery even when the actual current flowing into the battery is zero (since the alternator will produce the extra power drawn by the master contactor and electronic ignition, but the VP-X will only show the power consumed by the devices connected to it).



I don't have the exterior lights hooked up, but this is a good way to test the VP-X fault detection.  I turned on the taxi lights...



...and the SkyView screen shows a VP-X fault.



The VP-X screen on the SkyView indicates the problem is that the taxi lights aren't drawing any current.  From here, you can scroll down and reset the fault.  The other nice thing is that device can be turned on or off or controlled directly from this page.  For example, if my fuel pump switch were to fail, I could navigate to that device here and press the "ON" button seen at the bottom of the screen to turn the device on regardless of the state of the switch.  You can even control the trim and flap motors from here.  The buttons change to "Left" and "Right", or "Up" and "Down" as appropriate.  This is really slick, and I'm very glad I waited for the VP-X and SkyView integration.  



I got an order from Aircraft Spruce with some red and blue #10 ring terminals, so I finished wiring up the GTN 635 and audio panel to the isolation diodes.  The only things left to connect here are the outgoing power wires to the TruTrak Gemini and autopilot servos.



All of the corresponding wires are hooked up to the essential bus fuse box.  There's no fuse installed in the spot for the TruTrak Gemini since I don't know what size it will be.



I then started wiring up the annunciator control circuit.



Push to test and the dimmer work as expected.



One of the annunciator lights to wire up is the Essential Bus light.  This pulls power off the stud on the essential bus fuse box.  The wire needs to be protected though since the essential bus fuse box is supplied with a pretty fat wire.  If I just used a bare wire from that stud to the annunciator circuit, it could melt and start a fire if it ever shorted somewhere along the wire.  To protect the wire, I could use an inline fuse, but a more reliable way is to use a fusible link.  This is basically just a short length of 26AWG wire with terminals crimped on each end.  The whole thing is covered with some silicone impregnated fiberglass sleeving.  This will be crimped to a piece of 22AWG wire that will run to the annunciator control circuit.  If this wire were to ever be shorted to ground, the 26AWG wire would melt and break before the 22AWG wire got hot enough to cause a fire.  The silicone sleeving keeps the melting 26AWG wire from causing a fire.



I also hooked up a few other lights.  First up, I connected the annunciator light to the voltage regulator.  This light flashes "Low Voltage" whenever the alternator isn't producing power.  Second, I hooked up the oil pressure light to the oil pressure switch  This will be on whenever the master switch is on and the oil pressure is too low.  This will also serve to remind me to turn off the master switch. Finally, I hooked up the SkyView master alarm light.  This starts flashing whenever the MSG button on the display starts flashing.  It can be configured to go out or stay on after acknowledging faults that haven't been cleared.



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