December 2009 Archives

Started Bending Longerons

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I started bending the longerons tonight.  The instructions specify that they be clamped in a vise, bent a little to put some preload, then hit with a rubber mallet to bend it slightly.  Move the longeron down an inch or so and repeat.  The problem is that any bend you add in one axis creates an inadvertent bend in the other axis as well as a twist.  You then need to clamp the other leg of the angle in the vise and remove the inadvertent bend and use a crescent wrench to remove the twist.  Unfortunately, that removes some of the intentional bend.  It's a very iterative process.  Van's specifies that the bend needs to be accurate to within 1/16", but I'm shooting for no more than 1/32".

I've heard several builders recommend that you spread the bending over a number of small sessions instead of trying to do it all at once since it can be quite frustrating.  I spent about 30 minutes tonight getting an initial bend into each of the longerons.  This is within an inch or so of the template, so there is a lot more tweaking to do, but it's a start.

Worked on Left Longeron

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I started tonight by making a template (shown in the middle here).  I glued the bending template from the RV-7A page to a piece of 1/4" MDF; cut it out and sanded to the line.  I then spent about an hour fine tuning the bend on the left longeron.

Here is the template sitting on the left longeron.  As you can see, the far end (rear end) still needs a little fine tuning, but the rest of the bend is within 1/32" or so and the longeron is pretty close to flat and zero twist.  A lot of builders complain that bending the longerons are really frustrating (and Van's instructions describe it as maddening), but I haven't found the process too bad at all.  If you take your time and make gradual bends, it's pretty straightforward.

Worked on Tailcone

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The tailcone has six stringers that must be cut to length.  The ends also need some shaping, but fitting them to the tailcone now will allow me to shape the ends to fit the bulkheads precisely.

Next up, I fit the tailwheel spring mount between the last two bulkheads.  This will eventually be bolted to both of them.  These are both double bulkheads, and they're riveted to both the side and bottom skins, the side stringers and the longerons.  Needless to say, this will be a phenomenally strong part of the airplane.

This skin needs an arched section removed to allow the tailwheel spring mount to stick through.  The plans provide a template for the shape of this.  I traced it onto a sheet of paper and transferred it to the tail skin.  It was pretty close, but required a little further sanding right at the rear edge of the mount.

I then clecoed the tail skin to the bottom skin and slid the stringers into place.  I'll trim the stringers tomorrow and then the side skins can be clecoed on.

Assembled Tailcone

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I went out this morning before work and drilled the tailwheel spring mount to the F-711.  It took quite a while to ensure that the mount was centered, square, and the tailwheel was exactly vertical.

F-712 gets a couple of keeper rivets to hold the mount in place until the bolt holes can be drilled in conjunction with the vertical stabilizer rear spar.

Unfortunately, one of the holes came out slightly under the recommended edge distance of 1.5D (12/32" in this case).  I need to run this by Van's and see if they think this is an issue.

Update: Ken Scott at Van's said not to worry about 1/32", especially in steel.  "Build on" as they say...

I clecoed the tailcone together.  Getting the stringers in gets a little tough once all of the bulkheads are in place, but I eventually got it.  The ends of the lower four stringers need notches cut in each end to clear the bulkheads.

Here's a shot looking down the tailcone from the other end.  The vertical rib connecting the top an bottom of the closest bulkhead as well as the horizontal rib that connect the closest two bulkheads are supposed to be off center.

The holes in the tail skin don't even come close to lining up with the holes in the side skin.  I need to do a little research on this to see how to get these to align.  I can't just pry them into alignment since there is a stringer right on the other side of these holes that would prevent inserting a cleco through the hole after aligning.

Fit Tail Skin

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Like I mentioned yesterday, the holes in the tail skin didn't come close to aligning to the side skins.  I couldn't pry the skins into alignment and hold them with clecos because there is a stringer right behind the row of rivets along the bottom of the side skin and the stringers don't have any holes in them.  The fix turned out to be relatively simple.  Remove the side skin, match drill the lower stringers through the holes that will be shared with the tail skin, then cleco the tail skin back on.

Getting the tail skin out without removing all of the bulkheads required removing a fair number of clecos at this end of the fuselage.  Here, I've match drilled the lower stringers from F-710 back.

Now the F-779 tail skin can be fit.  Putting in the clecos on the first side was pretty easy, but the second side was pretty tricky.  The fit is really tight in this area, so it takes a fair amount of force to get the holes to align.  I worked my way from the front to the back one hole at a time and eventually got everything aligned nicely.

It's hard to see here, but I hung a plumb bob through the top tooling hole of F-712 and shimmed the tail until the string bisected the bottom tooling hole.

I then hung a second plumb bob from the upper tooling hole in F-706 and shimmed the front until this was centered in the opening.  It's too late to start drilling tonight, so I'll start this tomorrow.

Drilled Tailcone Stringers

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Jenn helped me raise the tail so that the plumb bobs would be more accurate and then I reshimmed the tailcone so that there was no twist.  I then drilled every fourth hole down the stringers (the horizontal rows of clecos in this picture).  The tailcone is pretty stiff now though it can still be flexed a little bit until the aft top deck is riveted on.

Drilled Tailcone

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No pictures tonight as it would look just like last night.  I drilled all of the holes in the tailcone that needed to be drilled right now.  This included the stringers and bulkheads (except for the frontmost one (F-706) and the top row of holes where the longerons are attached.  Drilling the bottom was a pain because I had to lie on a creeper and was absolutely covered with aluminum shavings by the time I was done (wear a full face mask if you want to keep them out of your eyes).
I had a couple of tasks to take care of before disassembling the aft fuselage.  First up is to mount the autopilot pitch servo mounting bracket.  The forward edge of this has to be 3.43" from the center of the 1/4" pivot hole for the elevator bellcrank.  This required drilling out three rivets so the mounting plate could sit flush.  If you're installing a dynon autopilot, just leave these rivets out from the beginning and save yourself the time.

Here's how the bracket sits against the rib.  The flange on the bottom can be cut off or drilled to the skin (which I'm doing).

After match drilling the bracket to the rib, I laid out for rivet holes aligned with the ones in the rib (as if aesthetics matter on the bottom of the aircraft).

After clecoing the structure back to the bottom skin (and using a clamp to keep the bracket tight against the rib), I match drilled the skin to the bracket.

The F-710 bulkhead needs a piece of 1/8"x1"x1" angle fabricated to sit at the top edge.  The ends have to be tapered and shaped to nest into the longerons.

The F-711 bulkhead also needs a piece of 1/8"x3/4"x3/4" angle, also with tapered and shaped ends.  This won't get riveted on until the side skins are riveted to the longerons.

Here you can see why.  The longerons rivet to this flange on the bulkhead which is covered by the angle I just fabricated.  In fact, I had to notch the ends of the angle here to clear the future shop head for this rivet.

The tailcone is now fully disassembled so I can begin deburring, dimpling, and priming.

The bracket is 0.048" thick, so it can't be dimpled.  Instead, I machine countersunk the holes here to receive the skin dimples.

I started deburring parts, but ran out of steam.  I'd like to finish this up this weekend so I can get the tailcone riveted together before the holidays.
No pictures again tonight since it's still just a pile of parts, but I made a good dent in deburring and dimpling the parts.  Tomorrow will be a long build day, so I'm hoping to finish these up and start riveting the tailcone together.
I did a little further trimming on the mousehole so that the tail skin also cleared the welds on either side of the tail spring mount.  I haven't decided if I'm going to paint the mount or have it powdercoated yet.  I'm going to call around tomorrow and see how much it would cost to have it powdercoated.

With my buddy Andre's help, I finished prepping all of the tailcone components for priming.  It's a bit late tonight to start the priming, but it should be fairly easy to knock it out in the next day or two.  Here is the bottom skin and all of the bulkheads behind it.

And here are the side skins.  The skins got a little scratched up inserting and removing the stringers, so I scuffed up the rivet lines and will prime those.

When I drilled my tailwheel spring mount, somehow one of the holes came out lower than it should (this picture is upside down, so the right hole looks too high).  Van's confirmed the reduced edge distance wasn't an issue, but I wanted to make sure the misplaced hole wasn't causing the mount to be cocked to one side.  I clecoed the two rear bulkheads back to the tail skin with the mount between them and took a bunch of measurements.

Despite my best effort at positioning the mount, the tailwheel was cocked to one side about 2º.  I don't know if that is significant enough that it would affect the handling, but it would be virtually impossible to change later, and it would bug me knowing that it's not correct, so I ordered a new one from Van's.  It came in today, so I wanted to get it drilled to the fuselage tonight.

Unfortunately, the new mount didn't have the hole drilled in it that attaches the mount to the spring (the one under the drill bit).  I needed to figure out how to drill a hole in the mount that would somehow line up with the hole in the spring inside.  What I ended up doing was positioning my v-block so that the hole would be the right distance from the right end when the flange was butted up against the v-block.  I then took a reading with my digital level of the angle of the flange top edge when the drill bit was pushed all the way through the old mount.  I then positioned the new mount so the flange top edge was at the same angle and clamped it down.  I drilled through the top wall of the tube and then put the spring in place and lined up the holes.  I then used that as a guide to drill the bottom wall of the tube.  This resulted in perfect alignment of the holes.

I then used some scrap 1/8" angle to make sure the tailwheel fork tube was exactly perpendicular to the tail skin.  This picture shows how the angle is clamped to the tailwheel fork tube and rests on the tail skin.

And here you can see that this is perfectly perpendicular.  I clamped the angle to both sides of the tailwheel fork tube to make sure the measurements agreed.

This shows that the tailspring bolt is perfectly centered in the hole in the tail skin (with the old mount, the bolt was cocked noticeably to one side).  After everything was clamped in place, I drilled the mount to the F-711 and F-712 bulkheads.  I double checked that the tailwheel fork tube was straight, and it was perfect (easily within 0.1º of vertical); I feel much better now.

I received my Grove Aircraft master cylinders in the mail today.  I decided to upgrade from the stock Matco master cylinders because people have had issues with them sticking.  It appears that the issue can be addressed with external springs, but I don't really like the way those look.  Also, I heard such good things about the Grove cylinders that they seemed like the better choice.  These have internal springs, so there should be no issue with them not extending fully when brake pressure is released.

Before reassembling the tailcone, I took care of one additional task that would be tough if I waited until later.  I drilled the holes next to the rudder cable exit holes out to #19 and dimpled for a #8 screw.  This will be used to attach an adel clamp to hold the rudder cable guide.

I primed all of the bulkhead and stringer seams since these got somewhat scratched up during the drilling.

I also primed the rest of the components for the tailcone.

Since these are the lowest seams in the fuselage, I wanted to prime the overlap areas in case any water gets trapped there.  I also primed the entire inside of the tail skin.

The top angle can now be riveted to the F-710 bulkhead.

And F-712 can be riveted to the tail skin.  These rivets were a little tricky to set, and I ended up drilling out two of them and replacing them.  Since these flanges have an acute angle to the web, using the 4" no-hole yoke with its thin nose made these easier.

Here are the rivets on the other side of F-712 (remember that it is a double bulkhead).  The only ones that couldn't be squeezed were the two lowest ones just next to the mouse hole.  It's too late to fire up the rivet gun tonight, so this will have to wait.  I'm not ready to rivet the tail spring mount in place yet anyway since I want to give it a top coat of paint and the primer needs to dry for 24 hours.

I went ahead and riveted the autopilot pitch servo mounting bracket to the rib using some AN470AD4-5 rivets.  Apparently, I had forgotten to dimple the holes in the bottom of this rib, so I did that now as well.

Finally, I got started clecoing the tailcone together.  It was at this point that I noticed that I forgot to prime the stringers, so I had to stop for the night.  I'll do those tomorrow and then the tailcone can be fully clecoed together and riveting can begin.

I didn't have a lot of time tonight, but I primed the stringers that I forgot to prime last night.

I also put a couple of coats of gloss black paint on the tailwheel spring mount to give it a little extra protection beyond the primer.

Now that everything in the tailcone is primed and the tailspring mount is painted, I clecoed the tailcone together.

The tailspring mount fits between F-711 and F-712.  I shot and bucked the keeper rivets the hold the mount to F-712 (you can see them on the right side of the mount here.  These just keep the mount from shifting until the bolts that tie this and the vertical stabilizer spar together are installed.

I flipped the tailcone upside down to make it more stable for riveting and shimmed it until there was no twist.

It was too late to run the rivet gun, but I squeezed all of the rivets in F-712 and all I could reach on F-711.

Finished Final Wing Skin

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Since it was too late to do any riveting, I decided to finish up the last wing skin.  It still needed deburring, dimpling, and edge finishing.

I also installed the platenuts around the inspection hole.  Other than riveting the bottom wing skins in place and the wingtips (which I'm putting off for the time being), there is nothing left to do on the wings. 

I finished the gentle curve in the left longeron and clamped some 0.032" scrap to the side to simulate the side skin.

I then laid the left side rail in place and clamped it flush with the edge of the scrap (plus a little to account for material removal when edge finishing the side rail) and drilled it to the longeron.

Next, I padded the jaws of the vise with some duct tape and clamped the longeron in place for the sharp downward bend 28 1/4" after of the leading edge.  I also clamped some scrap steel down to the top of the longeron to keep it from lifting as I perform the bend.

Here is the longeron after putting in the 5.6º downward bend.

The longeron also needs a 17º inward twist from this point forward.  I used a large crescent wrench to give this a healthy twist.  You have to apply significantly more twist than you need to account for springback.

In the end, I got 17.1º.  Clamping the longerons to the upper engine mounts will lock in the final angle.

Here you can see that the downward bend in the longeron lines up precisely with the cut in the side skin.

My wife Jenn graciously agreed to help me get started riveting the tailcone.  Here she is manning the rivet gun.

While I was sitting on a stool under the tailcone manning the bucking bar.   

We got all of the rivets holding the bottom skin to F-707, F-708, and F-710 as well as the bottom skin to side skin joints.  I still have to do the side skins to bulkheads and stringers as well as the rest of the rivets in F-711 and F-712 (the last two bulkheads).

Jenn really picked riveting up quick.  Within just a few rivets, she was shooting them perfectly almost every time.  I only had to drill out one rivet, and that was because I was holding the bucking bar slightly crooked.  Like other builders, I had to upsize a few of the rivets by 1/2 size because the size specified on the plans was too short.

Before heading to bed, I finished up the gentle curve in the right longeron and match drilled it to the side rail.  I'll take care of the downward bend in the longeron tomorrow, then it's on to the center section.

Started Center Section

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I started the center section tonight.  This is the section containing the seats and the baggage area.  First up is to fabricate the spacers that will keep the two halves of F-704 the proper distance apart so that the wing spars can slide in easily.  The plans say to make these 1.438" thick, but my spars were more like 1.441", so that is the dimension I used.  My method was to superglue a number of 7/16" washers together until I had almost enough thickness and then use shims of aluminum tape to bring the spacers to within 0.001" or so of the correct dimension (erring slightly over rather than slightly under).

Next up was to fabricate some spacers from 1/8" bar stock.  These will fit between the center seat ribs and the rear spar.

The plans have you modify the center two seat ribs with a small removable section so that the control center section can be removed.  Many builders modify the center four ribs instead to make this task easier.  The removable sections need clips that span the gap to retain the strength of the rib.  These are pre-fabricated out of 0.063" sheet, but the kit only provides two.  The only extra 0.063" sheet stock I had handy was the extra fuel tank access plates that are used when you're not using flop tubes, so I traced the clips onto the plate and cut them out on the band saw.

After match drilling them to the existing clips, I clecoed all of them together and sanded them until the profiles matched.

Here are the four clips, ready to be installed.

To modify the ribs, the first step is to cut a 1.5" hole around the tooling hole already provided.  I used my new Craftsman fly cutter and knocked these out in just a few minutes (the old Harbor Freight fly cutter was junk and this would have taken forever).

Here's the result.  The area between these two holes can now be trimmed out with some snips.

Next, a small portion near the top can be snipped out.  Here it's clecoed back in place to show how the retaining strap (on the other side) will span the gap.

Finally, a couple dozen platenuts need to be installed on the seat ribs so that the seat pan can be removed to access the controls.

I used to drill the center hole with a #19, cleco these in place, drive a screw in to make sure it was aligned with the hole and held firmly, then match drill the skin through the platenut to make sure the rivet holes were perfectly inline.  After deburring and countersinking, I would then put the screw back in to ensure the platenut was still aligned with the hole.

I think this is significant overkill though  Given the accuracy of these prepunched kits, the holes are already exactly in the right spots, and drilling these out can't move the hole significantly.  So tonight I tried something a little simpler.  I drilled the center holes out to #19 and the side holes out with #40, all without attaching the platenut.  After deburring and countersinking the rivet holes for NAS1097 rivets, I riveted the platenut in place without putting a screw in.  Every single one came out perfect.  This is going to make installing platenuts significantly faster from here on out.

It was late, but I wanted to cleco the center section together tonight to see what it looked like.  First up is to cleco all of the seat ribs to the aft portion of F-704.

The the baggage ribs are clecoed to the aft side of F-705.

Finally, the two sections can be joined.  It was at this point I noticed that I forgot to flute the ribs (it's nearly 1 am, so I'm obviously getting a bit tired).  This seems like a good stopping point for the night.  I'll flute these ribs and proceed from here tomorrow.

My dad stopped by tonight and helped me knock out the rest of the riveting on the tailcone tonight.  It was his first time, but he picked it up really quickly and the rivets look great.

I also put the correct bolts into the tailwheel mount through F-711 and torqued and sealed them.

To save space, I stood the tailcone up on a blanket.  This freed up a significant amount of floor space that I'll need while working on the center section.  I've got to get the wings out of here soon or I'll run out of room.

I also fluted all of the seat ribs and squared the flanges.  I haven't rejoined the seat ribs to the F-705 bulkhead yet though.

Two of the ribs need relief cuts to clear wiring holes in F-704.

The same thing goes to two of the ribs attached to F-705.

Being that it is Christmas, I didn't think I'd get to work on the plane at all, but I did sneak out to the garage long enough to cleco on the bottom skin.

I started tonight by match drilling the bottom skin to the seat and baggage ribs as well as the F-704 and F-705 bulkheads.  Next I got started on the F-623 side ribs.  There is a joggle in these that makes it look like it could nest inside F-705, but this is apparently a holdover from the RV-6 and must be cut off.

The side rib should sit behind F-705 like this.  They will be connected with a strap that has to be fabricated.

The aft end of the side rib must be cut off as well. I positioned a ruler where the front edge of the F-706 bulkhead will sit and marked the rib.

After cutting of the ends, I clamped the rib in place and match drilled it to the bottom skin.

The plans specify attachment straps that connect F-623 to F-705 that are 3/4" wide.  This is too wide to hit just one row of rivets here, but not wide enough to catch both rows.  Most builders just narrow the strip to 1/2" and catch just the outer row of rivets, but I decided to make the strip a little wider and catch both rows of rivets.

The aft attachment straps will have edge distance problems if fabricated according to plans.  Instead, I made the strap widen somewhat as it exits F-623 so that the aft rivet (on the right in the picture below) will have sufficient edge distance on all sides.

I clamped the two side ribs together to transfer the cut marks from one to the other.

I clamped the two halves of F-704 together using the spacers I made and some hardware store 7/16" bolts.  I put two of the close tolerance bolts in place (one in each end) to ensure the bulkhead halves were perfectly aligned since the hardware store bolts allowed a little slop.

I then clecoed the side skin doublers in place and match drilled them to the F-704 side pieces.

Four of the rivets along the front edge of F-704 must be countersunk so that the F-704 flange isn't dimpled.  This is to allow the floor stiffeners to nest against this flange. 

The bottom skins is only 0.025" thick, which is not thick enough to take a countersink for a 3/32" rivet.  This causes the countersink to penetrate slightly into the F-704 flange.  This is ok in this particular case.

Afterward, I removed the bottom skin and baggage ribs.

I pulled out the crotch strap install kit, but I need to get up really early tomorrow, so I'm going to call it a night.

I started today by installing the crotch strap brackets.  I'm either going with Hooker or Crow harnesses, but either way, the spacing between the brackets has to be increased to 5/16" (instead of the stock 1/8" spacing).  Mike Bullock already determined the best way to accomplish this and documented it here, so I'm just going to copy his method (thanks Mike).  I put a center line that is aligned with middle nutplate, then measured 7/32" forward and 3/32" aft of this line and put additional marks.

The front side of the bracket is positioned with the web flush with the forward line and drilled to the adjacent ribs.

Instead of cutting a 5/16" spacer, I just used a couple of AN5 bolts which are 5/16" in diameter.  I taped them in place and clamped the aft side of the bracket against the bolts and against the seat pan, then drilled the bracket to the adjacent ribs.

The prepunched holes in the seat pan need to be drilled to #19 for #8 screws.

Here is the backside, showing good edge distance on the #19 holes.

After repeating the process for the right bracket, I finished up a few remaining tasks such as drilling the seat ribs to the aft side of F-704, match drilling all ribs to bulkheads, and drilling out the forward tooling holes to 5/8" for wiring runs.  I then disassembled the center section and started prepping the individual components.

First up is to debur and dimple the holes in the bottom flanges of F-704.  Remember that the holes we countersunk in the bottom skin have to be skipped when dimpling so that the floor stiffeners can lay flush against this flange.

Neither the instructions nor the plans make any mention of these holes in the top flange of the aft side of F-704, but the seat pan that sits above this is removable, so this must just attach the top of the seat ribs to the F-704 flange.  Since the seat pan needs to sit flush against this flange, I countersunk this for an AN426AD3 rivet.

Finally, I started deburring all of the components.  I made it through the F-704 and F-705 bulkheads and six of the eight seat ribs before running out of steam.  I should be able to finish deburring the rest of the center section components tomorrow.
I finished deburring and dimpling the remaining center section components and stayed up until well after 2 AM (on the 29th) getting everything cleaned and primed.  I'm exhausted, but wanted to finish this so that I can begin final assembly tomorrow.

I started final assembly of the center section this morning.  First up is to rivet the crotch strap brackets to the appropriate ribs.  I used solid rivets here instead of the blind rivets called for in the plans.  These can all be reached with the squeezer when the ribs are out in the open like this.

These pairs of ribs can then be riveted and bolted to the aft side of F-704 (bolts go through the top and bottom ends of the forward flanges of these ribs and through the thick spar carry through bars).

Now the rest of the ribs can be riveted on.  I also final torqued all of the rib to F-704 bolts and lacquer sealed them.

F-705 and the baggage ribs can then be riveted on.  Because of the rear spar carry through, spacers, etc., the lengths of the rivets varies pretty significantly through here, so pay close attention to the rivet callouts.

While access is good, I bolted on the control mounts and lacquer sealed them.

Since everything is now bolted to the aft end of F-704, there is no reason not to bolt the two halves together.  I reinserted a couple of close tolerance bolts to ensure perfect alignment, then installed the two AN4 bolts and spacers.

Here is a closeup of one of the spacers and the installed bolt.  I had to use three washers under the nut (the maximum allowed) to cover the grip (this bolt is a little long like this because it also holds part of the gear weldment on nosedraggers). 

I riveted together the connecting straps for the modified seat ribs and temporarily installed them so the ribs are more rigid during the next few steps.

I also installed the one leg nutplates in the top of the crotch strap brackets.  This would have been easier to do before riveting these to everything else.

I deburred and dimpled the bottom skin and shot a little self-etching primer on the parts that will be covered by the corner ribs and F-704.

Finally, I clecoed the bottom skin to the center section skeleton.  This is ready to rivet; I need to see if I can find a riveting partner sometime in the next couple of days.

Jenn graciously offered to help me rivet part of the center section (after midnight no less).  We made it through a fair amount before Jenn's wrist hurt too much from operating the gun.  Hopefully we can finish this up tomorrow so that I can start working on joining the center and aft fuselage segments.

Modified Canopy Rails

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The canopy rails need to be modified.  The plans specify slightly different modifications for the tip-up vs. the sliding canopy.

I've measured out and marked the areas to be removed.

The cutoff wheel makes quick work of making distortion free cuts in the rail, but it can get away from you, so I kept it back from the line 1/16" or so.

After a few minutes of filing, here is the finished result.  The top edge of the slot will be seen in the cabin, so I made sure it is perfectly straight.  The other side will be under part of the canopy latch, so it doesn't matter as much if it is absolutely perfect.

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